Kelaniya is a suburb of Colombo city in Western Province, Sri Lanka. It is known for the Buddhist temple built on the banks of the Kelani River, which runs through the suburb. It is also a religious center for veneration of the figure Vibhishana.

Kelaniya (Kalyani) is mentioned in the Buddhist chronicle, the Mahawansa which states that the Gautama Buddha (5th century BC) visited the place, after which the dagaba of the temple was built.

The suburb is also of historical importance as the capital of a provincial king Kelani Tissa (1st century BC) whose daughter, Viharamahadevi was the mother of king Dutugemunu the great, regarded as the most illustrious of the 186 or so kings of Sri Lanka between the 5th century BC and 1815.

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